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Psychopathology Review
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Nondieting Psychological Interventions for Individuals who are Overweight or Obese: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

Authors
  Danielle MacDonald - Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto Ontario, Canada
  Stephanie Cassin - Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto Ontario, Canada

In Press, Pages 1-29
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5127/pr.037014

Abstract
Nondieting psychological interventions for overweight/obesity emerged from poor maintenance of change in weight reduction interventions, psychological difficulties experienced by this group, and the position that focusing on weight loss can reinforce psychological struggles. The nondieting paradigm aims to improve wellness without weight loss. This paper reviews the efficacy of nondieting interventions for overweight/obesity. Thirteen randomized controlled trials were reviewed, which compared nondieting interventions to wait list, weight loss, and psychosocial comparison groups. In the short-term and in follow-up, nondieting interventions resulted in improvement of body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, and eating disorder psychopathology, but not other psychological or physiological variables. Despite not focusing on weight reduction, there were no weight differences compared to weight loss treatments at 12-18 month follow-up. These findings suggest that elements of the nondieting paradigm may be beneficial to psychological wellbeing in individuals with overweight/obesity, and that integrating such interventions into clinical practice may be helpful.

Table of Contents
Introduction
A Systematic Review of the Evidence
 Obesity, Weight Loss, and Psychological Functioning
 Nondieting Interventions for Overweight/Obesity
Methods
 Literature Search and Study Inclusion
 Quality Review System
 Effect Sizes
Results
 Nondieting versus Wait List Control Groups
  Depression.
  Self-esteem.
  Body image.
  Anxiety and stress.
  Restrained eating, disinhibited eating, and hunger.
  Eating disorder psychopathology.
  General wellbeing.
  Weight.
  Physiological indicators.
  Conclusions.
 Nondieting versus Weight-Loss Comparison Groups
  Depression.
  Self-esteem.
  Body dissatisfaction and avoidance.
  Anxiety, stress, and general wellbeing.
  Restrained eating, disinhibited eating, and hunger.
  Eating disorder psychopathology.
  Weight.
  Physiological indicators.
  Conclusions.
 Psychosocial Comparison Groups
Discussion
 Limitations
 Implications and Future Directions
Acknowledgements
References
Appendix: Tables

Correspondence to
Danielle MacDonald, Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5B 2K3.

Keywords
Nondieting; Health at Every Size; Obesity; Overweight; Body Image

Dates
Received 16 Aug 2014; Revised 12 Jun 2015; Accepted 14 Jun 2015; In Press 1 Oct 2015







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