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Psychopathology Review
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The Relationship Between Negative Problem Orientation and Worry: A Meta-Analytic Review

Authors
  James Bowness Clarke - Newcastle University and Northumberland Tyne and Wear NHS Trust
  Michelle Ford - Northumberland Tyne and Wear NHS Trust
  Sara Heary - Northumberland Tyne and Wear NHS Trust
  Jacqui Rodgers - Newcastle University and Northumberland Tyne and Wear NHS Trust
  Mark Freeston - Newcastle University and Northumberland Tyne and Wear NHS Trust

In Press (Uncorrected Proof), Pages 1-22
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5127/pr.034313

Abstract
Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) can have a significant detrimental effect on the lives of sufferers. Research into the psychological process involved in worry has an important role in the prevention and treatment of problems such as GAD. Negative problem orientation (NPO) has been identified as an important psychological construct involved in worry (Gosselin, Ladouceur & Pelletier, 2005). The focus of this meta-analytic review was to further our understanding of the relationship between NPO and worry, and a related construct called intolerance of uncertainty (IU). The review identified 31 articles reporting correlations between measures of NPO and worry. These articles detailed a total of 33 independent effect sizes. Using a random-effects model and raw and attenuation-corrected values, NPO was found to be significantly correlated to worry (r = 0.57 , CI = 0.55-0.60, k = 33, N = 5376). The type of NPO measure moderated the relationship between NPO and worry. In addition, NPO was found to be significantly correlated with IU (r= 0.71, CI = 0.69-0.73, k = 14, N = 3072) and more strongly correlated with IU than with worry (p<.05). The findings have implications for theory, research and practice. Issues in the measurement of NPO are discussed, and the relationship between NPO and IU is considered.

Table of Contents
Introduction
Generalised Anxiety Disorder
The Intolerance of Uncertainty Model
Negative Problem Orientation
Review objectives
Method
 Literature Search
  Search terms.
  Search strategy.
  Inclusion/exclusion criteria.
  Selection of studies.
Meta-Analytic Method
 Inter-Rater Reliability.
 Independent Effect Sizes.
 Outliers.
 Transformation of r.
 Homogeneity.
 Publication Bias.
 Correction for Attenuation.
 Effect Size Coding.
 Sources of Heterogeneity.
Moderator Analysis.
Results
 Relationship between Negative Problem Orientation and Worry
 Consideration of the Exclusion of Outliers.
 Moderator Analysis.
 Relationship between Negative Problem Orientation and Intolerance of Uncertainty.
 Moderator Analysis.
 Relationship between Negative Problem Orientation and Intolerance of Uncertainty and Worry
Discussion
 Negative Problem Orientation definition and measurement
 Relationship between Negative Problem Orientation and Intolerance of Uncertainty
 Limitations
 Future Directions
Conclusion
References
Appendices

Correspondence to
James Bowness Clarke

Keywords
Negative Problem Orientation, Worry, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, GAD, Meta-Analysis

Dates
Received 11 Oct 2013; Revised 5 Jan 2015; Accepted 12 Dec 2015; In Press 5 Feb 2016







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