ISSN 2051-8315
Psychopathology Review
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 Volume 4, Issue 1, 26-51, 2015
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Internalizing psychopathology across the life course: from genes and environment to gene-environment interaction

  Darya Gaysina - University of Sussex, School of Psychology, Bright
  Ellen Thompson - University of Sussex, School of Psychology, Bright
  Anastasia Kazantseva - Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biochemi

Volume 4, Issue 1, 2015, Pages 26-51


Internalizing psychopathology (i.e., depression and anxiety) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. The recognition that both genetic factors (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) contribute to the aetiology of internalizing disorders has led to a rapid growth in research of gene–environment interactions (G×E) and of epigenetic mechanisms underlying G×E. The purpose of this paper was to critically review evidence on the contributions of genes, environments and G×E to the risk of internalizing psychopathology across the life course. The existing G×E studies have primarily focused on a limited number of candidate genes. Overall, albeit with some conflicting findings, these studies have supported G×E effects on the risk for depressive and anxiety outcomes. Future G×E studies would benefit from more systematic assessment of both negative and positive environmental influences, utilization of a developmentally sensitive life-course approach, and thorough investigations of epigenetic mechanisms that can underlie the complex gene-environment co-action.

Table of Contents

Correspondence to
Dr Darya Gaysina

Depression, anxiety, affective disorders, gene-environment interplay, epigenetics

Received 5 May 2015; Revised 9 Sep 2015; Accepted 9 Sep 2015; In Press 21 Feb 2016

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