ISSN 2051-8315
Psychopathology Review
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 Volume 4, Issue 1, 52-108, 2015
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Free Article Aetiological influences on stability and change in emotional and behavioural problems across development: a systematic review

Authors
  L Hannigan - King's College London, Medical Research Council, Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre
  N Walaker - King's College London, Medical Research Council, Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre
  M Waszczuk - King's College London, Medical Research Council, Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre
  T McAdams - King's College London, Medical Research Council, Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre
  T Eley - King's College London, Medical Research Council, Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre

Volume 4, Issue 1, 2015, Pages 52-108
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5127/pr.038315

Abstract
Emotional and behavioural problems in childhood and adolescence can be chronic and are predictive of future psychiatric problems. Understanding what factors drive the development and maintenance of these problems is therefore crucial. Longitudinal behavioural genetic studies using twin, sibling or adoption data can be used to explore the developmental aetiology of stability and change in childhood and adolescent psychopathology. We present a systematic review of longitudinal, behavioural genetic analyses of emotional and behavioural problems between ages 0 to 18 years. We identified 58 studies, of which 19 examined emotional problems, 30 examined behavioural problems, and 9 examined both. In the majority of studies, stability in emotional and behavioural problems was primarily genetically influenced. Stable environmental factors were also widely found, although these typically played a smaller role. Both genetic and environmental factors were involved in change across development. We discuss the findings in the context of the wider developmental literature and make recommendations for future research.

Table of Contents
Introduction
 Emotional and behavioural problems across childhood and adolescence
 Genetic influence on emotional and behavioural problems in development
 The current review
Method
 Search strategy
 Inclusion criteria
Procedure
 Study selection
 Data extraction
Results
 Study sample
 Emotional Problems
  Anxiety, fear and obsessive-compulsive behaviour.
  Depression and depressive symptoms.
  Temperament and broad measures of emotional problems.
 Summary
 Behavioural Problems
  ADHD, attention problems and impulsivity.
  Aggression, anger, antisocial behaviour and conduct problems.
  Behavioural problems (general).
 Summary
Discussion
 Summary of findings and relation to the broader literature
 Implications for researchers and clinicians
 Strengths and limitations of the review
 Conclusion and future directions
Acknowledgements
References
Tables

Correspondence to
Mr Laurie J. Hannigan, Medical Research Council, Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF, UK.

Keywords
Childhood; adolescence; psychopathology; systematic review; behavioural problems; emotional problems; quantitative genetics; behavioural genetics; longitudinal

Dates
Received 29 Apr 2015; Revised 3 Sep 2015; Accepted 3 Sep 2015; In Press 21 May 2016







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